Twenty-four years after joining the Salt Lake City Fire Department as a second-generation firefighter, Kurt Cook became the department’s 20th chief. He was sworn in as the chief on Oct. 23, 2009. During his time with Utah’s Capital City Fire Department, Chief Cook has been promoted to several key positions, such as engineer, captain, battalion chief and deputy chief. By serving the citizens, visitors and business community of Salt Lake City in these roles, Chief Cook is a seasoned veteran leader in the fire service.
August 25, 2014
SLC Fire Safety Tip - Service Station Safety (Aug. 25, 2014)
August 18, 2014
SLC Fire Safety Tip - MDA/Fill The Boot (Aug. 18, 2014)
August 11, 2014
SLC Fire Safety Tip -Multi-residential fires (Aug. 11, 2014)
August 4, 2014
SLCFD August 2014 Community Newsletter.pdf
Brian is the Deputy Chief for Administrative Services Bureau with the Salt Lake City Fire Department, and has worked for the department for 27 years. He manages five divisions including; EMS/Wellness, Fire Prevention, Technology, Apparatus, and Support Services. He has been in Emergency Services for over 33 years with 28 years as a paramedic. Brian has extensive an background in quality improvement and oversight for EMS and Emergency Dispatch personnel, and functioned as a Paramedic Preceptor for Weber State University's paramedic and Emergency Medical Technician program. He currently serves the International Academies of Emergency Dispatch as the Chair for two standard setting bodies, and has a Bachelor’s Degree in Health Sciences with an emphasis on education.
Deputy Chief Karl Lieb has served 18 years for the Salt Lake City Fire Department. Formerly a HazMat Technician, Station Captain, and District Battalion Chief, Chief Lieb is currently the Deputy Chief of operations for SLC Fire. He is responsible for the operational readiness and capability of the department’s response companies. With a commission in the United States Air Force and POST certification from the State of Montana Highway Patrol Academy, Deputy Chief Lieb has extensive experience in the public safety realm from the federal to the municipal level. He has earned a degree from the University of Minnesota and an MPA from the University of Utah.
Gary McCarty was appointed Assistant Chief, Operations for the Salt Lake City Fire Department on December 9, 2013. Chief McCarty began his career with the Department on July 13, 1987, during his tenure he has held positions as response Battalion Chief, Fire Marshal, response Captain, Adjunct Training Instructor, Paramedic, and Firefighter. Chief McCarty is currently responsible for oversight of the City Operations and Training Division. His most memorable experiences on the Department have been working closely with the operations crews responding to the citizens needs. In 2010 he was recognized as the Officer of The Year.
Hours of Operation
Prepare a fire escape plan with family and coworkers, and practice often.
Chage your clocks, change your smoke detector batteries.
Get a lock box for your business or residential property.
Pull to the right for emergency vehicles when driving.
Know the warning signs of stroke. Heathly eating and regular exercise can reduce your risk for heart attack.
fire codes and reference materials
GENERAL. Applicant agrees to undertake and execute all blasting operations in a substantial and workmanlike manner, and to furnish all materials, tools, equipment and labor necessary, solely at applicant's expense, to properly complete the work required. It is hereby distinctly understood and agreed that City has not executed a contract for performance of the work to be done in this project. City assumes no responsibility for terms of contract entered into between the applicant and the contractor so engaged or employed by the applicant. TRAFFIC CONTROL. Applicant agrees to maintain traffic control as required by the Fire Marshal during demolition operations. REPAIR OF DEFECTIVE OR DAMAGED PUBLIC WAY IMPROVEMENTS. Applicant agrees, upon written notice, to repair any damaged or defective public improvements caused as a result of the demolition work. CODES, PERMITS. Applicant agrees to adhere to and comply with local, State and Federal laws, ordinances and regulations controlling or limiting in any way the construction or installation of the work, action of those engaged upon the work, or affecting the materials, or transportation in any way involving the work to be performed. SITE CONDITIONS. Applicant agrees to be familiar with all conditions at the site in order to understand the problems involved in carrying out the work. INSURANCE. Applicant agrees to obtain and maintain during the entire existence of this permit a comprehensive general liability policy of insurance with minimum coverage amounts of 1 million dollars. Said insurance shall provide for a minimum of 30-day prior written notice of cancellation to the City. On all such coverage, City shall be named as an additional insured. Applicant agrees to furnish certificates of insurance verifying such coverage. INDEMNITY. Applicant agrees to indemnify, save harmless and defend City, its agents and employees, from all claims, mechanics claims, damages, actions cost, expense and charges, including attorney's fees, arising out of or by reason of Applicant's blasting operations. NOTICE OF FIRING. At least one working day in advance of each blast, applicant agrees to notify the Fire Marshal's office of the date and time of the firing. Applicant understands that the presence of an inspector at the site may be condition of firing. (for purposes of notification, working days are Monday through Friday, excluding holidays) Telephone 801-799-4150 1. PERMIT PROCEDURE A. Permit Application At least two working days prior to the proposed blasting, permit applicant shall request a permit from the Fire Marshal's office. The application (appendix B) shall include the following: 1. Blaster name, certification, number, expiration date. 2. Company name, address, phone, after hours phone. 3. Project location. 4. Blasting plan to include: a. Description of proposed blasting procedure desired results, quantity and type of explosives to be used. b. Sketch of site showing measured distances to neighboring buildings, streets, and other facilities, area in which neighbors will be notified of the blasts. 5. Traffic control barricading and signing plan. 6. Date and time of blast. 7. Insurance certificate covering blasting operations, including Salt Lake City as additional insured, in the minimum amount of one million dollars ($1,000,000.00), to be determine at the time the permit is requested. Failure to have all of the above information at the time of permit application will result in delays in processing the application, and may require postponement of the blasting date. B. Annual or Project Permit For repeated blasts at one site for a quarry operation or a single project, an annual or project permit may be issued to cover all blasts within the permit period. All blasting covered under an annual permit must be at the same site. The permit is not transferable. The permit requires the same information listed in section 1 above. Additionally, the permit holder will do the following. 1. Notify the Fire Marshal's office on working day in advance of each blast. 2. Keep a file of each blasting plan available for inspection. Notify the Fire Marshal's office of any charges of information given in the permit application. C. Permit Fees. The following fees will be required at the time of filing for the permit. These are in addition to insurance certificate and performance bond costs (see fee schedule). D. Appeal Procedure. If a permit application is denied by the Fire Marshal, the applicant may appeal the denial to the Mayor or the Mayor's designated agent. Such appeals should be in writing addressed to the Mayor of Salt Lake City. Mayor, at his/her option, may hold a hearing at which evidence is presented or may review the written materials in the file, along with all other information that the applicant and/ or City may wish to subject to the Mayor for his/her consideration. The decision of the Mayor shall be final and binding. E. Insurance Certificate. A certificate of liability insurance naming Salt Lake City Corporation as additional insured will be required for all blasting permits. (see appendix c) F. Inspector Duties. A fire department inspector may be assigned to monitor each blasting activity. The inspector and the City assume no responsibility nor liability for personal injury or property damage as a result of the blasting procedure. G. Unexploded Charges. The blaster is responsible for either detonating or removing any unexploded charges in the event of unexploded charges. Federal procedures must be followed. The site is to remain cordoned off until the explosive material has been removed. If the material cannot be removed immediately, the fire departments must be notified. H. Other permits. The blasting permit does not remove the requirements for obtaining and complying with other permits. For example, if the blasting is in the public right of way, a permit to do work in the public way must also be obtained and complied with. Blasters shall also notify Blue Stakes prior to digging or drilling.
The Fire Department wants to assist you in opening your business with a minimum of delay and unnecessary expense. New business licensing procedures require your business license be approved within thirty (30) days, with a possible thirty (30) day extension for good cause. It is important to do some "ground work" before you make application. First: Check with the permits & zoning office to insure that your type of business is permitted in your selected area. Second: If you are anticipating any physical changes to the building, it probably will require a permit from Permits and Zoning services. After submission of plans, a plan check will be made to see if you meet all code requirements. ***Many business licenses are delayed and denied because applicants are not aware of the various code requirements involved!!*** Third: If you are changing or expanding the use of your building, different code provisions may apply. Many of these provisions may be unique to your type of business. Check with someone at the Permits & Zoning counter for any idea of any special requirements, also review the enclosed Fire Department Pre-Screening Checklist, it will be helpful. Fourth: Review the downloadable pre-screening checklist and direct any questions to the staff at the Permits & Zoning counter. If you have additional questions, you can contact the Fire Prevention Bureau at 801-799-4150. Business Licence Checklist
To apply for an daycare inspection, the provider must apply online and pay the required fee.
Application Flame Affects before an Audience held within Salt Lake City limits require a Flame Affects before an Audience Permit issued by the Salt Lake City Fire Department, Fire Prevention Bureau and adherence to our current Flame Affect policy. This policy reflects the same standard set forth in NFPA 160. This policy shall apply to the following: 1. Use of indoor and outdoor flame effects before an audience. 2. Design, fabrication, installation, testing, control, operation, and maintenance of equipment, materials, procedures, and systems used to produce flame effects. 3. Rehearsal, videotaping, audio taping, or filming of any television, radio, or movie production if such production is before an audience and includes the use of flame effects. Rehearsal of any production incorporating flame effects before an audience. An application will consist of the following: 1. Complete an application form 2. Insurance: A certificate of insurance listing a minimum of one million dollars ($1,000,000) of liability coverage for personal injury, for each occurrence, and the aggregate amount. Salt Lake City Corporation must be named as an additional insured. The insurance documentation must be received as a copy of the original with an original signature of an authorized issuer, or a FAX (facsimile) of the original certificate. 3. Flame Effect Plan: A plan for the use of flame effects shall be approved by the Salt Lake City Fire Prevention Bureau. After a plan has been approved, the plan shall be maintained to be readily available at the site for inspection The plan for the use of flame effects shall be submitted in writing or other form acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. The plan shall include the following: a. The name of the person, group, or organization responsible for the production b. The dates and times of the production c. The location of the product d. The flame effect classification e. A site plan showing the following: i. A narrative description of the flame effect ii. The location of flame effect devices to be fired and their controls and control sequence iii. The area affected by the flame effect device iv. The location of the audience v.The fuels used and their estimated consumption vi. Air for combustion and ventilation for indoor effects vii. Flammable materials piping viii. Storage and holding areas and their capacities ix. Supplemental fire protection features (extinguishers, protective gear, etc.) x. Emergency response procedures xii. .Means of egress The plan shall also include a diagram of the kind, placement, size, and range of the devices. Include location of the discharge site and the relative distances of the fallout areas, spectator areas, parking areas, highways/roads, buildings, trees and any other pertinent information. Include information regarding any road closures and a list of items to be shot. 4. A current material safety data sheet (MSDS) for the materials (fuels) consumed in the flame effect & documentation that the combustible materials used for construction of the flame effects have been rendered flame retardant 5. Payment: Payment to Salt Lake City Corporation in the amount of (see fee schedule) due at the time the application is filed. Late applications will be charged a double permit fee (see fee schedule), if not received within 10 days of the display, the application may be denied. 6. Delivery: Send or deliver completed application and required material to: Salt Lake City Fire Prevention Bureau, 305 East 200 South, Salt Lake City, Utah, 84111. Permit will be available for the signature of a responsible party 10 working days after receipt of the application. Permit must be signed before display date. Operator Qualifications The name of the effect operator Operating instructions shall be available to the Salt Lake City Fire Prevention Bureau when flame effects are in use. The operator of any flame effect shall understand and be familiar with the operating manual or instructions. The operator shall demonstrate competency by experience and training or by holding a license acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. Minimum Age All flame effect operators shall be at least 21 years of age. Operator Responsibilities The flame effect operator shall be responsible for storage, setup, operations, and teardown of all flame effect materials, devices, equipment, systems, and supervision of assistants. Substance Abuse and Safety No person shall use or handle flame effect materials or devices under the influence of the following: 1. Intoxicating beverages 2. Narcotics or controlled substances 3. Prescription drugs or nonprescription drugs that can impair judgment Flame Effect Demonstration When required, a walk-through and a representative demonstration of the flame effects shall be provided to the authority having jurisdiction before flame effects are approved. The demonstration shall be scheduled with sufficient time to allow resetting of the flame effects prior to the arrival of the audience.
In order to encourage the safe sale and use of fireworks, the Salt Lake City Fire Department has issued the following information concerning fireworks. Selling Fireworks License required It is unlawful for any person to engage in the business of selling fireworks without first having obtained a license to do so. Licenses shall be designated as indoor sales or outdoor sales. License Fees 1. The fee for a license to sell fireworks shall be as set forth by the applicable Salt Lake City Code. 2. The above license fees must be paid at least ten (10) days prior to the opening of the business, and the license shall date from approval of issuance by the city and shall expire on the date of expiration of the annual base business revenue license as set forth by applicable Salt Lake City Ordinances. Outdoor Sales 1. All stands and/or trailers shall comply with the applicable provisions of the Salt Lake City Code, as amended, or any successor provision. No stand shall be erected on the sales site, nor shall any trailer be placed on the sales site more than five (5) days prior to each of the dates that sales are permitted under state law. 2. The fireworks stands or trailers must be removed within five (5) days after the end of each of the sales periods. 3. All electrical installations associated with temporary stands or trailers shall conform to the applicable National Electrical Code. 4. No stand or trailer shall be installed or located except in accordance with the applicable zoning ordinances. 5. Each stand or trailer shall have an approved fire extinguisher, Type 2A-10BC, or approved Salt Lake City fire department equivalent. 6. No stand or trailer shall be located in such a way as to eliminate the off-street parking required by the applicable zoning ordinances. 7. All stands or trailers shall have an aisle within them that shall be maintained free and clear of all obstructions and which shall be at least three (3) feet in width. 8. All stands or trailers shall be so constructed that customers may not reach the fireworks until the fireworks are actually purchased. 9. All stands and trailers shall be securely locked when not in use, and no person shall be allowed to sleep overnight in the stand or trailer. 10. All fireworks retail sales locations shall be under the direct supervision of a responsible person who is eighteen (18) years of age or older. 11. Those selling fireworks at retail sales locations shall be at least sixteen (16) years of age or older. 12. The area surrounding the stand or trailer shall be kept free and clear of all weeds, debris and other flammable materials for a distance of twenty-five (25) feet in all directions from the stand or trailer, and such stand or trailer shall be located upon hard-surfaced areas only. 13. Temporary stands, trailers or tents for the sale of class C common state approved explosives shall be located at least fifty (50) feet from other stands, trailers, tents, LPG, flammable liquid or gas storage and dispensing units. Indoor Sales Definitions 1) "Indoor sales" means sales conducted inside a permanent structure located in areas properly zoned for retail sales. 2) "Permanent structure(s)" means a nonmoveable building which is securely attached to a foundation. 3) Display of fireworks inside permanent structures shall be allowed, provided the following criteria are met: a) If five hundred (500) pounds or more of fireworks are displayed for sale, the display of fireworks must be constantly attended by a sales person. b) If more than two hundred fifty (250) pounds, but less than five hundred (500) pounds, of fireworks are displayed for sale, the display must be within constant visual supervision of licensee's personnel. c) The display of fireworks shall be located not less than fifty (50) feet from any flammable liquid, gas, other highly combustible material, or from any open flame. d). Fireworks shall not be located for display or storage near exit doorways, stairways or other locations where, if the fireworks caught fire, it would impede egress from the building. e). Fireworks shall be stored, handled, displayed and sold only as packaged units. Broken packages shall be removed immediately upon discovery of the broken package. Signs required 1. Every outdoor fireworks stand or trailer shall have posted on it in a conspicuous manner signs which read substantially as follows: 2. No smoking within the distance of fifty feet (50) of the fireworks stand or trailer. 3. No fireworks discharge shall be allowed within the distance of fifty feet (50) of the fireworks stand or trailer. 4. The dates on which fireworks may be legally discharged pursuant to state law: Three days before, on the day of, and three days following: (a) July 4; (b) July 24; (c) January 1; and (d) the Chinese New Year 5. Every indoor fireworks seller shall have posted in a conspicuous manner signs which read substantially as follows: a) No smoking or open flames allowed within fifty feet of the fireworks display. b) The dates on which fireworks may be legally discharged pursuant to state law: Three days before, on the day of, and three days following: (a) July 4; (b) July 24; (c) January 1; and (d) the Chinese New Year. Discharging Fireworks and Safety Precautions Fireworks may be discharged in approved areas only (restricted areas listed below). Only Class 1.4G fireworks that cannot travel more than 15’ in to the air (vertically) or 10’ on the ground (horizontally) are state approved for residential and recreational use. Fireworks that explode (fire crackers) are prohibited. Fireworks such as bottle rockets and roman candles are strictly prohibited. No fireworks discharge shall be allowed within the distance of one hundred fifty feet (150) of the fireworks stand or trailer. Parents are strongly encouraged to supervise their children while using fireworks. *Please keep a bucket of water nearby to place spent fireworks in for at least twelve (12) hours before discarding into a garbage can. Restrictions The following areas are restricted from any open fires or fireworks use: All areas east of Wasatch Drive All areas east of Virginia Street All areas north of 11th Avenue Both sides of City Creek Canyon North of 500 North behind the State Capitol All areas east of Beck Street All areas east of Victory Road All areas north of 1800 North All areas west of I-215 in Salt Lake City All City parks Note: Only propane fueled camping stoves may be used in City Creek Canyon. All open fires and charcoal grills are restricted The following restriction has been placed on cigarettes, cigars, or other similar products: Cigarettes may only be smoked within the confines of a vehicle in City Creek Canyon. Salt Lake City currently has an ordinance allowing the recover of costs associated with extinguishing a fire caused by the negligent use of fireworks, fires, and/or the improper extinguishment of cigarettes. The costs associated with fighting large grass fires can run into the tens of thousands of dollars. Please properly extinguish all cigarettes before disposal. Littering laws will be fully enforced. Fireworks can be a fun part of both the 4th of July and 24th of July holidays. Legal fireworks sold in Utah by licensed dealers are a part of many family’s traditions. When adults purchase legal fireworks and closely follow directions, they can have a safe and enjoyable holiday. During the upcoming holiday periods, the fire department will have additional personnel out in the community to enforce the fireworks codes and restricted areas.
In order to obtain an application for Flammable Liquid Storage Tanks please submit an online application to set up a date and time to have the tank installed or pulled. Removals must have closure plans with an application and Installs must have plans submitted with tank and piping specifications. Tank installation permit fees are based on the size and type of the tank, please refer to the fees page for a breakdown of these charges. This permit is not transferable and is good only for the location specified, it must be available for inspection at any time by authorized persons, and may be revoked for cause as provided by city ordinance or by violation of safety regulations, as set by the Fire Marshal, provided no changes or modifications or additions are made. ****This for does not duplicate Utah State Marshal rule R710-6* Liquefied Petroleum Gas Rules.* it is intended for site plan review only.
In order to better serve the needs of the community and to comply with State and Federal Law, the Salt Lake City Fire Department has initiated a program for the issuance and maintenance of Annual Hazardous Materials Permits. Our aim is to bring our community to full compliance with all aspects of 2009 International Fire Code. This will be accomplished through a vigorous inspection program and permit application packet. We ask for your assistance as business owners in completing this important work. As business dealing with hazardous materials, you are faced with a number of reporting and regulatory requirements. It is our intent to deal specifically with those requirements that are distinct hazards to life and property and of direct value to our firefighters in responding to your emergencies. We feel that the expense involved with gaining compliance to the International Fire Code is important and will provide you with the information necessary so that you may make long-range business decisions to remain in compliance with these laws. To apply for a permit, please fill out our online application. The information you furnish will be forwarded to the inspectors responsible for your property and the HazMat Response Team. This will save a great deal of time during the actual on-site inspection at a later date. Payment for the permit fee is due at the time of application, then on an annual basis after that. Fees are collected for permit renewals by January 1st and inspections are completed throughout the year. We will provide you with a Hazardous Materials Permit Application packet that will help identify what information is required and will help you determine if you need to fill out a SARA Tier II Hazardous Chemical Inventory form required by the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) section 312. If at the time of inspection you are found to be in compliance, your Hazardous Materials Permit will be issued, signed and dated. If your business is in noncompliance with the 2009 International Fire Code we will identify the steps you must take to gain compliance. Questions relating to the Hazardous Materials Permit Program should be referred to: Ted Johnson at 801-799-4153 Mark Luthi at 801-799-4168
The Salt Lake City Fire Department requires all high rise buildings to be inspected once every two years. A high rise building is any building used for human occupancy at a level 75 feet or more above the lowest level of Fire Department vehicle access. To apply for a high-rise permit, please fill out our online application.
OPEN FIRES FOR THE PURPOSE OF PREPARING FOOD - FIRE MARSHALS POLICY 1. The lu-au pit is to be 25 feet from any building or structure. 2. A garden hose attached to a water supply, or other fire extinguisher equipment must be readily available for use. 3. The fire shall be constantly attended by a competent person until the fire is extinguished. 4. The combustible materials to be burned to be dry and not produce dense smoke. 5. Flammable or combustible liquids can not be used to maintain the fire. 6. A person(s) shall not construct a lu-au pit as to constitute a fire hazard or endanger life or property. 7. The fire must be 10 feet from the property line(s).
TENT AND OTHER MEMBRANE STRUCTURES PERMIT REQUIREMENTS Definition: A tent is defined as a structure, enclosure or shelter, with or without sidewalls or drops, constructed of fabric or pliable material supported by any manner except by air or the contents that it protects. Tent and other membrane structures needing a permit: Tents with one or more sides over 400 square feet. (Single or combine sq. ft.) Tents open on all sides over 700 square feet. (Single or combine sq. ft.) Cooking tents used in an aggregate configuration. (Ten foot separation) To avoid the permit requirement on multiple tents there must be a 12 foot space every 400 to 700 sq. ft. Permitting process: All tents and other membrane structures shall comply with Chapter 24 of the 2009 International Fire Code. Apply for the permit thirty (30) days prior to tent set up. Apply for permit online at www.slcfpb.com, or at the Salt Lake City Fire Prevention Bureau in the Salt Lake City Public Safety Building The application will be reviewed for compliance to the fire code and a permit fee will be accessed. Payments can be made online or via check. All Checks should be made payable to Salt Lake City Corporation A temporary permit will be issued upon the physical inspection of the location and structure. A permit issued by the Fire Marshal will be required for each tent and temporary structure as per the requirements stated above. (The permit application should contain the following) A complete site plan, including the location of fire apparatus access roads, hydrants, property lines, and the location of nearby structures. The California State Fire Marshal’s flame retardant certification must be visibly displayed on the tent or canopy. A plan for the interior of the tent, including seating arrangements and the location and type of heating or cooking equipment. A full set of construction documents including structural calculation and detailed drawings of connections are required and will be reviewed at the discretion of the Fire Marshal. The time period for which the tent or structure is intended to be in place. No longer than 180 days per Salt Lake City requirements. General Requirements for all Tent/Canopies & Temporary Structures: All tents and membrane structures must be properly secured in case of wind (40 mph basic wind speed and 90 mph 3-second gust). Securing of the structures is the responsibility of the owner/operator (refer to IBC 1609) A portable fire extinguisher with a minimum 2A10BC rating must be accessible within 75 feet walking distance of all tents/temporary structures, at a minimum, as required by section 906 of the IFC. All extinguishers require a current State Fire Marshal’s inspection tag. Inspection tags are required annually. No smoking signs must be provided in each permitted tent. Exits shall be clearly marked and lighted when the exits serve an occupant load of 50 or more. All compressed gas bottles must be secured at all times to prevent them from tipping over. Generators must be maintained at least 20 feet from any tent or temporary structure. No combustible waste can be stored within 30 feet of a tent or temporary structure. Cooking Tents or Areas: In addition to the general requirement cooking tent must also meet these requirements: Flame retardant certification must be provided for all temporary structures utilized for cooking or heating of food. California State Fire Marshal’s flame retardant certification seal must be visibly affixed to the tent: Tents where cooking takes place, or cooking tents in an aggregate configuration, must be at least 20 feet from any building or other tents. Aggregate cooking tents will maintain 10 foot separation from adjacent cooking tents. A portable fire extinguisher with a minimum 4A40BC rating must be provided for each tent where cooking is taking place. If there are grease laden vapors present, a K type extinguisher is also required. (i.e.: deep fat frying) Inspection tags are required annually. (IFC 906.3(1)) LP gas cylinders, up to 500 gallons, must be stored outside and kept a minimum of 10 feet from any other structure. Cylinders capable of holding 501 gallons and greater shall require a 25 foot separation. Any open flame cooking or heat cooking will be supervised by an adult at all time. This adult will serve as a fire watch and standby personnel to take prompt measures for extinguishment of fires that occur and assist in the evacuation of the public from the structure. (Refer to IFC 2404.20)